Respiratory Monitoring

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Respiratory Monitoring

            I.   MONITORING                    A.   Respiration is the transport of oxygen from the environment to the cells of the body and the transport of carbon dioxide from those cells to the environment. Consequently, in…

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Hemodynamic Monitoring

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Hemodynamic Monitoring

            I.   HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING is one of the cornerstones of patient evaluation in the intensive care unit and provides diagnostic and prognostic value. The choice of monitoring depends on the diagnostic needs…

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Mechanical Ventilation

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Mechanical Ventilation

            I.   MECHANICAL VENTILATION provides artificial support of gas exchange.                    A.   Indications                           1.   Hypoventilation                                  a.   Evaluation: arterial pH should be evaluated for evidence of hypoventilation. Chronic compensated hypercapnia is a stable condition that usually does…

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Hemodynamic Management

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Hemodynamic Management

            I.   HEMODYNAMIC PERTURBATIONS are common during intensive care unit admission. Both hypotensive and hypertensive emergencies threaten cardiovascular system’s ability to provide sufficient oxygen and metabolic substrates to meet the demands of…

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Coagulopathy and Hypercoagulability

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Coagulopathy and Hypercoagulability

Coagulopathy in the critically ill covers a range of abnormal states of coagulation. It is defined as the blood’s inability to clot normally.             I.   COAGULOPATHIES AND HEMOSTATIC ABNORMALITIES IN THE CRITICALLY…

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Stroke, Seizures, and Encephalopathy

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Stroke, Seizures, and Encephalopathy

Acute cerebral dysfunction is often the initial reason for presentation to the hospital and frequently develops as a complication of medical or perioperative care. The majority of causes require specific…

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Adult Resuscitation

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Adult Resuscitation

            I.   OVERVIEW. The intensivist needs to be well versed in advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) not only to administer care in the ICU but also to assist throughout the hospital. The algorithms…

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Acute Gastrointestinal Diseases

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Acute Gastrointestinal Diseases

            I.   There are several gastrointestinal (GI) diseases that present in an acute fashion and require critical care, that is, acute pancreatitis, intestinal perforation, ischemic bowel, acute bleeding, or following a major…

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Burn Critical Care

Oct 12, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Burn Critical Care

            I.   INTRODUCTION                    A.   Scope of the Problem in the United States                           1.   Burns are a major source of morbidity: approximately two million burns occur per year. Burns result in more than 60,000 hospitalizations…

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