PAIN MEDICINE

Central Nervous System Monitoring

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Central Nervous System Monitoring

Key Points 1. Electroencephalography can detect both cerebral ischemia or hypoxia and seizures and can measure hypnotic effect. 2. Middle-latency auditory-evoked potentials objectively document inadequate hypnosis. 3. Somatosensory-evoked potentials may…

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Electrocardiographic Monitoring

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Electrocardiographic Monitoring

Key Points 1. The electrocardiogram reflects differences in transmembrane voltages in myocardial cells that occur during depolarization and repolarization within each cycle. 2. Processing of the electrocardiogram occurs in a…

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Monitoring of the Heart and Vascular System

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Monitoring of the Heart and Vascular System

Key Points 1. Patients with severe cardiovascular disease and those undergoing surgery associated with rapid hemodynamic changes should be adequately monitored at all times. 2. Standard monitoring for cardiac surgery…

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Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Key Points 1. Ischemia during the perioperative period demands immediate attention by the anesthesiologist. 2. Nitroglycerin is indicated in most cases of perioperative myocardial ischemia. Mechanisms of action include coronary…

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Coronary Physiology and Atherosclerosis

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Coronary Physiology and Atherosclerosis

Key Points 1. To care for patients with coronary artery disease in the perioperative period safely, the clinician must understand how the coronary circulation functions in health and disease. 2….

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Pharmacology of Anesthetic Drugs

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Pharmacology of Anesthetic Drugs

Key Points 1. In patients, the observed acute effect of a specific anesthetic agent on the cardiovascular system represents the net effect on the myocardium, coronary blood flow (CBF), and…

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Cardiac Physiology

Sep 1, 2018 by in PAIN MEDICINE Comments Off on Cardiac Physiology

Key Points 1. The cartilaginous skeleton, myocardial fiber orientation, valves, blood supply, and conduction system of the heart determine its mechanical capabilities and limitations. 2. The cardiac myocyte is engineered…

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