ANESTHESIA

Chapter 75 – Immune System

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Abstract An antigen is a substance that stimulates the immune system, resulting in an immune response. Antigens are either proteins or polysaccharides. The immune system produces antibodies that specifically bind…

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Chapter 85 – Physiology of Ageing

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Abstract Ageing involves processes not only of physical but also of psychological and social change. Increasing numbers of elderly people are undergoing elective and emergency surgery, with post-operative complications being…

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Chapter 89 – Temperature Regulation

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Abstract Core body temperature is one of the most tightly controlled physiological parameters. Normal core body temperature ranges from 36.5 to 37.5°C. Peripheral body temperature, involving the skin and subcutaneous…

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Chapter 77 – Metabolism

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Abstract Metabolism refers to the whole range of biochemical reactions that occur within living organisms. Metabolism broadly encompasses anabolism (the building up of larger molecules from smaller ones) and catabolism…

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Chapter 83 – Foetal Physiology

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Abstract Exchange of nutrients. The placenta is an unusual organ because it is derived from the tissues of two different organisms: endometrial cells (known as decidual cells in pregnancy) from…

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Chapter 87 – Altitude

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Abstract High altitude has no consensus definition. It is most commonly defined as corresponding to >2500 m above sea level, where most individuals begin to show physiological adaptations. Long-term habitation…

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Chapter 81 – Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal

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Abstract Triiodothyronine (T3), the strongly biologically active thyroid hormone. T3 comprises only 10% of the hormones released by the thyroid gland. In the circulation, T3 is very highly protein bound…

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Chapter 86 – Physiology of Obesity

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Abstract The World Health Organization classifies obesity based in the patient’s body mass index (BMI); their weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of their height (in metres): Chapter 86…

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Chapter 88 – Diving

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Abstract You may wonder what a chapter entitled ‘diving’ is doing in a book for anaesthetists – only the few who work in coastal areas will ever be required to…

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Chapter 84 – Paediatric Physiology

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Abstract Children are not simply ‘small adults’. The anatomical and physiological differences between children and adults have a significant impact on their anaesthetic management. Chapter 84 Paediatric Physiology Children are…

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