ANESTHESIA

Chapter 22 – Diuretics

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Abstract The kidney is a complex organ maintaining fluid, electrolyte and acid–base balance. It also serves an endocrine function by secreting renin and erythropoietin. Chapter 22 Diuretics The kidney is…

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Chapter 20 – Drugs Acting on the Gut

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Abstract Antacids neutralise gastric acidity. They are used to relieve the symptoms of dyspepsia and gastro-oesophageal reflux. They promote ulcer healing but less effectively than other therapies. Chapter 20 Drugs…

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Chapter 19 – Antiemetics and Related Drugs

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Abstract Nausea and vomiting has many causes including drugs, motion sickness, fear, pregnancy, vestibular disease and migraine. In previous decades anaesthesia was almost synonymous with vomiting, but with the advent…

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Chapter 18 – Central Nervous System

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Abstract BDZs modulate the effects of GABA at GABAA receptors. The specific α-subunit type determines the BDZ pharmacology – anxiolytic or sedative. Two BDZ receptor subtypes have been identified: BZ1,…

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Chapter 17 – Antihypertensives

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Abstract Renin (half-life 80 minutes) splits the decapeptide angiotensin I from the circulating plasma protein angiotensinogen, which is synthesised in the liver and is present in the α2-globulin fraction of plasma…

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Chapter 13 – Sympathomimetics

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Abstract The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a complex system of neurones that controls the body’s internal milieu. It is not under voluntary control and is anatomically distinct from the…

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Chapter 16 – Vasodilators

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Abstract Sodium nitroprusside is usually administered as a 0.005–0.02% (50–200 μg/ml) intravenous infusion, the dose of 0.5–6 μg.kg−1.min−1 being titrated to effect. Chapter 16 Vasodilators Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)…

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Chapter 15 – Anti-Arrhythmics

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Abstract The heart is composed of pacemaker, conducting and contractile tissue. Each has a different action potential morphology allowing the heart to function as a coordinated unit. The sino-atrial (SA)…

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