Common electrolyte disorders (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium)

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Common electrolyte disorders (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium)

Renal losses: diuretics, RTA, DKA, Bartter’s and Gittleman’s syndromes Gastrointestinal losses: diarrhea, emesis, gastric suction, laxative abuse, malabsorption Transcellular shift: alkalemia, insulin, beta-agonists/bronchodilators, catecholamines, Hyperaldosteronism Critical presentation Severe hypokalemia (<2.5…

read more

Overdoses

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Overdoses

Figure 66.1. Rumack–Matthew nomogram. (Courtesy of Graham Walker, MD.) Critical management Activated charcoal can be given as a gastric decontaminant: It is most effective if given in the first hour….

read more

Esophageal perforation and mediastinitis

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Esophageal perforation and mediastinitis

Foreign bodies (button batteries) Caustic ingestions Trauma (blunt or penetrating) Violent emesis (Boerhaave syndrome) Valsalva (cough, heavy lifting, childbirth) Severe esophagitis Peptic esophageal ulcer Spontaneous Other iatrogenic causes (nasogastric tube…

read more

Hyperthermia

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Hyperthermia

Spontaneous clonus Inducible clonus plus agitation or diaphoresis Ocular clonus plus agitation or diaphoresis Tremor plus hyperreflexia Hypertonia plus temperature above 38C plus ocular clonus or inducible clonus Table 64.2….

read more

Fulminant hepatic failure

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Fulminant hepatic failure

Viral • Hepatitis –A, B, D, E• Herpes simplex virus• Cytomegalovirus• Epstein–Barr virus• Herpes varicella zoster• Adenovirus Drugs and toxins • Acetaminophen• Carbon tetrachloride• Sulfonamides• Tetracycline• Isoniazid• NSAIDs• Rifampicin• Valproic…

read more

Acute decompensated heart failure

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Acute decompensated heart failure

Systolic dysfunction Diastolic dysfunction Impaired contractility Structural abnormality Myocardial infarctionDilated cardiomyopathy, including peripartum cardiomyopathyMyocarditisAlcohol abusePapillary muscle rupture Ventricular hypertrophy (often related to hypertension)Hypertrophic or constrictive cardiomyopathyConstrictive pericarditisInfiltrative disease such as…

read more

Bradyarrhythmias

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Bradyarrhythmias

Sick sinus syndrome Infiltrative diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., scleroderma) Atrioventricular conduction block Acute or chronic ischemic heart disease Increased vagal tone (e.g., Valsalva maneuver) Drugs (e.g., digoxin,…

read more

Acute mesenteric ischemia

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Acute mesenteric ischemia

Arterial supply Target organs Celiac Esophagus, stomach, proximal duodenum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen Superior mesenteric artery Distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon to the splenic flexure Inferior mesenteric artery Descending…

read more

Acute pancreatitis

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Acute pancreatitis

Toxicological • Chronic ethanol abuse• Toxic alcohols• Azathioprine• Mercaptopurine• Valproic acid• Didanosine• Corticosteroids• Sulfa drugs• Scorpion venom Obstructive • Gallstones• Pancreatic tumors• External compression• Pancreatic divisum• Parasites: clonorchiasis, ascariasis Trauma…

read more

Meningitis and encephalitis

Feb 17, 2017 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Meningitis and encephalitis

a Glucose: 1 mg/dL = 0.0555 mmol/L. Critical management Antibiotic treatment should not be delayed for CT scan or until lumbar puncture results are available. Empiric antibiotics are based on…

read more
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes