Chapter 34 – Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease

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Abstract TTE evaluation of the heart valves requires both quantification of the severity of the pathology and identification of the underlying mechanism. This information will determine if surgical intervention is…

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Chapter 38 – Regional Anaesthesia

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Abstract Cardiac surgery induces profound sympathetic nervous system and inflammatory responses. This so-called ‘stress response’ to surgery causes a multitude of adverse haemodynamic, metabolic, haematological, endocrine and immunological effects. In…

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Chapter 36 – Haematology

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Abstract Over the last decade, there have been three major developments in perioperative blood management. Firstly, the recognition of preoperative anaemia and perioperative transfusion as risk factors for perioperative morbidity…

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Chapter 40 – Infection

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Abstract Knowledge of infections encountered in the setting of cardiac surgery, and their prevention and treatment, is essential for health professionals working in this area. Chapter 40 Infection Hannah McCormick…

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Chapter 39 – Pain Management after Cardiac Surgery

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Abstract Pain after cardiac surgery is common; 75% of patients recall experiencing moderate to severe pain on the cardiac ICU. This has significant physiological and psychological consequences, potentially leading to…

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Chapter 31 – Neurological Monitoring

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Abstract Monitors of neurological function have been available since the 1950s. Until recently, however, many have remained in the hands of enthusiasts at academic centres. Many laboratory methods are not…

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Chapter 33 – Assessment of Ventricular Function

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Abstract Ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Traditionally, invasive pressure monitoring has been used to make inferences regarding ventricular function….

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Chapter 30 – Cardiovascular Monitoring

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Abstract When the rapid detection of haemodynamic change is imperative, the ‘gold standard’ is direct arterial pressure monitoring. Other indications for invasive arterial pressure monitoring include severe underlying cardiovascular disease,…

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