Chapter 79 – Stress Response

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Abstract The stress response is a complex neuroendocrine response to physiological stress. The most commonly encountered stressors are trauma, burns, surgery and critical illness; the magnitude of the neuroendocrine response…

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Chapter 78 – Starvation

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Abstract Starvation is defined as the failure to ingest or absorb sufficient dietary calories to sustain normal body function, resulting in behavioural, physical and metabolic changes. Chapter 78 Starvation Describe…

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Chapter 70 – Acid–Base Physiology

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Abstract The word ‘acid’ is derived from the Latin acidus, meaning sour. Early chemists defined an acid as a chemical substance whose aqueous solution tastes sour, changes the colour of…

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Chapter 74 – Anaemia and Polycythaemia

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Abstract Erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells (RBCs), occurs within the bone marrow. Erythrocytes differentiate through several cell types during their development. Chapter 74 Anaemia and Polycythaemia What steps…

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Chapter 72 – Haemostasis

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Abstract ‘Haemostasis’ is a collective term for the mechanisms that stop blood loss. Macroscopically, the most obvious haemostatic mechanism is the conversion of liquid blood to a solid gel –…

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Chapter 73 – Transfusion

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Abstract As discussed in Chapter 8, red blood cells (RBCs) can be thought of as ‘bags of haemoglobin’ (Hb). However, the composition of the ‘bag’ itself differs between patients. The…

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Chapter 71 – Micturition

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Abstract The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvis. Its role is the storage and voiding of urine. Urine is produced in the kidneys, enters the bladder…

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