Alcohol Withdrawal

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Alcohol Withdrawal

Alcohol Withdrawal Nicole Bouchard BACKGROUND Chronic alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) are serious disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. AWS is frequently encountered in hospitalized patients and contributes…

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Acid–Base Disorders

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Acid–Base Disorders

Acid–Base Disorders Tara Scherer and Corey Slovis BACKGROUND Acid–base homeostasis influences protein function, which in turn affects tissue and organ performance. Disturbances of the acid–base system are common in the…

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State Catherine T. Jamin and Jeffrey Manko BACKGROUND Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two potentially devastating complications of diabetes. Although…

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Right Ventricular Failure

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Right Ventricular Failure

Right Ventricular Failure Joshua Sternbach, Francois Haddad, John E. Arbo, and Anne-Sophie Beraud BACKGROUND Accurate and rapid assessment of right ventricular failure (RVF) is challenging. The thin-walled right ventricle (RV),…

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Delirium

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Delirium

Delirium Jin H. Han, Eduard E. Vasilevskis, and E. Wesley Ely BACKGROUND Delirium is a form of acute brain dysfunction that occurs in 8% to 10% of emergency department (ED)…

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Indications for Contact and Respiratory Isolation

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Indications for Contact and Respiratory Isolation

Indications for Contact and Respiratory Isolation Chanu Rhee and Michael Klompas BACKGROUND Emergency and intensive care department health care providers often encounter patients with suspected or confirmed infections due to…

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Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma

Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma James Lantry III, John E. Arbo, and Geoffrey K. Lighthall BACKGROUND Thyrotoxicosis and myxedema coma are life-threatening syndromes representing the extremes of thyroid dysfunction. The…

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Sepsis

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Sepsis

Sepsis Michael C. Scott and Michael E. Winters BACKGROUND Approximately 650,000 cases of sepsis are diagnosed each year in the United States, making it one of the most common causes…

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Toxicologic Hyperthermic Syndromes

Dec 22, 2016 by in CRITICAL CARE Comments Off on Toxicologic Hyperthermic Syndromes

Toxicologic Hyperthermic Syndromes Mai Takematsu and Rama B. Rao BACKGROUND Elevations in body temperature may be caused by behavioral factors, exertion, infections, endocrinologic conditions, and environmental exposures; as well as…

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