Critical Care Medicine
Adult Critical Care
Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Acute Lung Injury in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Afshari A, Brok J, Møller AM, et al (Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Hvidovre Hosp, Denmark; Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark) Anesth Analg 112:1411-1421, 2011§
Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, defined as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, are critical conditions associated with frequent mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains controversial. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We searched CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, International Web of Science, LILACS, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and CINHAL (up to January 31, 2010). Additionally, we hand-searched reference lists, contacted authors and experts, and searched registers of ongoing trials. Two reviewers independently selected all parallel group RCTs comparing iNO with placebo or no intervention and extracted data related to study methods, interventions, outcomes, bias risk, and adverse events. All trials, irrespective of blinding or language status were included. Retrieved trials were evaluated with Cochrane methodology. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effect of iNO in adults and children and on various clinical and physiological outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias through assessment of trial methodological components. We assessed the risk of random error by applying trial sequential analysis.