Primary vs. secondary dysmenorrhea flow diagram. 
21.7 Introduction to Treatment
Increased levels of circulating PGF2α and PGE2 lead to increased myometrial contraction, vasoconstriction, and hypersensitization of pain fibers . On account of the PG-based etiology of primary dysmenorrhea, the current most common pharmacologic treatment for dysmenorrhea is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) .
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes
21.8 Pharmacologic Treatment
21.8.1 NSAIDS: First-Line Therapy
The various formulations of NSAIDS have comparable efficacy for dysmenorrhea, and pain relief is successfully achieved in 64–100 % on women . First-line therapy:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
May increase risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events
May increase risk of stroke
May increase risk of gastric ulcer/bleeding and intestine perforation
Caution if asthmatic
Caution if dehydrated
21.8.2 Hormonal Contraceptives: Second-Line Therapy
Suppress ovulation and reduce thickness of the endometrial lining of the uterus, thereby reducing the volume of menstrual fluid . This form of therapy includes hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs) .
WordPress theme by UFO themes