Head Injury and Neuroanesthesia
Immune Cell Populations Decrease During Craniotomy Under General Anesthesia
Liu S, Wang B, Li S, et al (Beijing Tiantan Hosp, China) Anesth Analg 113:572-577, 2011§
Postoperative infections are common and potentially fatal complications in neurosurgical intensive care medicine. An impairment of immune function after central nervous system surgery is associated with higher risk of infection and postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate how the immune cell population changes during the anesthesia process in patients undergoing craniotomy surgery.
Patients undergoing craniotomy who had an inhaled general anesthetic were studied. Blood samples were collected before anesthesia and 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after anesthesia began. Blood counts for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes were determined along with lymphocyte subpopulations (T cells, inducer and helper T cells, suppressor and cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells). Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)–2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were also measured along with tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni correction.
Eighteen patients were enrolled in this study. In the comparison of the immune cell counts during neuroanesthesia, we found that at 30 minutes after anesthesia induction, neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes decreased 18% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.0%–24.6%), 34% (95% CI: 16.2%–51.1%), and 39% (95% CI: 29.0%–48.9%) compared with their levels before anesthesia. At extubation the neutrophils returned to the base level. It also showed that natural killer cells decreased significantly during anesthesia. The concentration of cytokines in peripheral blood did not change significantly.